Conservative estimates place the incidence of FAS at 0.33/1,000 live births . More common effects include alcohol-related birth defects, alcohol-related neuro-developmental defects, and subtle effects on a variety of behavioral, educational, and psychological tests resulting from low to moderate levels of drinking during pregnancy . The importance of cognitive ability and understanding inappropriate health-related behaviors must also be considered. Conversely, children with developmental disabilities or impaired language ability often show increased difficulties in adhering to necessary behaviors, including health-maintaining ones . Attempts to make this transition are met with a variety of parental and cultural responses, all of which influence infants in ways that facilitate or impede their development.
Longitudinal national survey studies reveal that children reared in families with two biological parents tend to complete more schooling and engage in less risky behavior , particularly if their SES is high. The determinants of motor-vehicle-related injuries and fatalities are well recognized. Some relate to behavioral issues, such as speeding, failing to yield to pedestrians at crossings, and driving while intoxicated; others relate to automobile design and features, including impact absorption, seat belts, air bags, and similar features.
For example, in the context of Chinese immigrant families, Chao argues that parental control efforts are related to the goals of training children to have harmonious relations with others, which is considered essential to maintain the integrity of the family. In the context of black families, Brody et al. argue for the concept of “no-nonsense” parenting, which is thought to protect youths from dangerous surroundings. Harsh, punitive disciplinary practices are thought to feed into the cycle of anger and aggressive behavior developed by some children and youth . One-third (33.2 percent) of all births in America in 2000 were of psoriatic arthritis children born to an unmarried mother , and 22.4 percent of all children live with a single parent .
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Public health interventions addressing these factors, from seat belts to traffic signals and from law enforcement to public education and the development of bike paths, have achieved dramatic reductions in injury and fatality rates . School-age children spend 35 to 50 hours per week in and around school buildings. In some communities, schools have been built on relatively undesirable land, such as landfill sites like Love Canal. Schools are often located on old industrial sites or near highways, resulting in exposure to auto emissions and air pollution . Many school buildings are old and poorly maintained, leading to exposures to air pollutants, radon, asbestos, pesticides, and lead .
Cat scratch disease, carried by cats, has an estimated annual incidence of 22,000 cases, with the highest age-specific incidence in children less than age 10. Heavy drinking during pregnancy is the cause of fetal alcohol syndrome , the leading known cause of mental retardation (Abel and Sokol, 1987; Sokol, Delaney-Black, and Nordstrom, 2003).
- Make sure to keep up to date on your recommended vaccinations, as well as your children’s.
- Conducting or supporting ongoing research regarding social determinants of health and determine which strategies may be most effective in improving health outcomes.
- It is therefore essential for primary care providers—such as nurse practitioners educated in FNP programs—to consider social determinants of health to enable more holistic, comprehensive healthcare for the patients and families they serve.
- Here, we’ll examine how social determinants of health impact health outcomes and how we can build a better healthcare system together.
- Factors such as a patient’s education, income level and environment must be considered when providing treatment and care.
The consequences of exposure for children’s health include birth defects from prenatal exposures , neurological damage in younger children, and cancer . Vector-borne pathogens include Lyme disease, highest among 5–9-year-olds , and Rocky Mountain spotted fever, most prevalent under age 10 .
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The U.S. General Accounting Office reported that 20 percent of primary and secondary schools had indoor air quality problems; more than half had environmental pollutant or building ventilation problems that could affect air quality (U.S. General Accounting Office, 1995). Radon above the EPA’s action level was found in 2.7 percent of schools surveyed during the 1990–1991 school year (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1992). Asbestos, used extensively in schools until the 1970s, was still present in more than 8,500 schools in 1980, potentially exposing over 3 million students (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1987). Natural sources include radon, cosmic radiation, and ingested radon and fallout.
The report noted that skills training, peer involvement, social learning theory, and community involvement have the greatest effect on school health education. Environmental tobacco smoke has been shown to cause many different health effects in exposed children, including cancer, asthma, increased severity of respiratory syncytial virus, and increased incidence of ear infections (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1992). It is unclear to what extent these effects are related to religion or religiosity rather than parenting, community values, or attributes of youth who tend to be religious.